Caruso, Ettor, and Giovannitti

Caruso, Ettor, and Giovannitti

This is a photo showing (from left to right) Joseph Caruso, Joseph Ettor, and Arturo Giovannitti. If you look closely you'll notice that the three men are handcuffed to each other. This photo was taken while they were still in custody on the charges of murder and inciting a riot. Ettor's characteristic grin can be found in almost every photo of him, including this one. Caruso was a very active Italian-American striker. Ettor and Giovannitti were chief organizers for the I.W.W. and rushed to Lawrence at the onset of the strike. They were arrested on January 29th after Anna LoPizzo was shot and killed in a melee between police and strikers. Caruso, Ettor, and Giovannitti, while miles away at the time of the incident were nonetheless charged, jailed for the remainder of the strike, tried, and acquitted. The trial became a national sensation.

From James Heaton, “Legal Aftermath of Lawrence Strike,” The Survey, July 6, 1912, 503 - 510:

Joseph Caruso is held in the Lawrence jail as a principal in the murder of Anna Lopizzo who was killed during a clash between strikers and policemen. The state's claim, so far as it is known, is that Caruso aided Scuito who, it is alleged, did the actual shooting. The more important case of Ettor and Giovannitti, whose trial, originally set for May 27, was postponed at the request of counsel for the defense, involves far-reaching issues as to strike leadership and responsibility. The prisoners, who are charged with being accessories to the murder, were not present when Anna Lopizzo was shot. The commonwealth contended at their arraignment before Police Magistrate Mahoney, in Lawrence, February 9, that the defendants had spread ‘a propaganda of violence’. It was this propaganda, said the district attorney, which inspired the person actually guilty of the murder to fire at the police. According to the state's witnesses the shot missed its mark and killed the woman. Witnesses for the defense, mostly strikers, declared that Policeman Benoit fired the fatal bullet, and that at least one other officer also used his revolver. The police absolutely denied that they did any firing. Because it was dark it was difficult for outsiders to see just what happened.